A Systematic Review: Modern Apprenticeship Program in China



China's "modern apprenticeship system" has recently gained much scholars' attention. However, the available literature focused on vocational institutions situated in metropolitan cities and provided fruitful conclusions based on location. A dearth of studies is observed in explaining and differentiating the Chinese apprenticeship system, its evolution, and its impacts on the young Chinese workforce. Therefore, this review paper is an academic contribution to present the background information on the Chinese apprenticeship system, its progress, observation of project outcomes, analysis, and suggest a future direction for academicians to extend research. The analysis of existing literature provided an understanding of ambiguities in the apprenticeship system, and the paper recommends integrating academia, industry, and students for better implementation of the apprenticeship system. Additionally, the review paper also highlights the challenges faced by the Chinese apprenticeship system, such as the lack of standardization, inadequate support for apprentices, and insufficient recognition of vocational education. The paper suggests possible solutions to address these challenges, including strengthening the role of industry associations, promoting cross-regional cooperation, and improving the evaluation and certification mechanism. Overall, the paper aims to contribute to the literature on the Chinese apprenticeship system and provide insights for policymakers, practitioners, and scholars to improve the quality and effectiveness of the system.


Keywords: modern apprenticeship system;  China; vocational education; industry-academia association; practical learning

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.54435/heos.v3i1.93


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